Cross-Layer Design for Lifetime Maximization in Interference-Limited Wireless Sensor Networks

We consider the joint optimal design of the physical, medium access control (MAC), and routing layers to maximize the lifetime of energy-constrained wireless sensor networks. The problem of computing lifetime-optimal routing flow, link schedule, and link transmission powers for all active time slots is formulated as a non-linear optimization problem. We first restrict the link schedules to the class of interference-free time division multiple access (TDMA) schedules. In this special case, we formulate the optimization problem as a mixed integer convex program, which can be solved using standard techniques. Moreover, when the slots lengths are variable, the optimization problem is convex and can be solved efficiently and exactly using interior point methods. For general non-orthogonal link schedules, we propose an iterative algorithm that alternates between adaptive link scheduling and computation of optimal link rates and transmission powers for a fixed link schedule. Our framework is very general and can be easily adapted to many different link scheduling algorithms. The performance of this algorithm is compared to other design approaches for several network topologies. The results illustrate the advantages of load balancing, multihop routing, frequency reuse, and interference mitigation in increasing the lifetime of energyconstrained networks. We also briefly discuss computational approaches to extend this algorithm to large networks.